Alpen Steel | Renewable Energy

~ Contemporary Alternative For Site Proposals

 Contemporary alternative site proposals

Since the mid-1980s, Batan's preferred nuclear power plant site has been located on the Muria peninsula on the northern coast of Central Java, and since at least 2003, the preferred site on the peninsula has been Ujung Lemah Abang in the village of Balong. However, with the emergence of strong local opposition to the Ujung Lemah Abang site and potent scientific criticism of the appropriateness of the site, representatives of Batan and the Ministry of Research and Technology stated that the Ujung Lemah Abang site choice was not yet final.

In mid-2008 both the head of Batan and the Minister of Research and Technology proposed new possible sites including Pulau Panjang and the large seaport project town of Bojonegara, and unspecified sites in Kalimantan, possibly in proximity to the  Remaja-Hitam uranium deposits in West Kalimantan. Financial incentives for regions willing to host a nuclear power plant have been announced. Even an important critic of the Muria proposal, former president Abdurrachman Wahid, suggested relocating the planned Muria reactor to the island group of Karimunjawa, some 80 kms north of the Muria peninsula.

In the meantime, however, Batan "public acceptance" activities in the Muria region aimed at assuaging local concerns and reducing opposition continue unabated.  Any shift in away from the Muria region, which has been studied in depth for almost two decades, to an as yet undetermined new location, will set back the Batan building schedule many years. And in any case, substantial community opposition is highly likely to emerge in most of the suggested locations. For these reasons, there is good reason to doubt that Batan has in fact abandoned its long-held plans for four 1,000 Mw nuclear power plants at Ujung Lemah Abang.

 

Contemporary alternative site proposals:

  • Pulau Panjang
  •  
    • Banten
    • S 5° 55' 0'' E 106° 9' 0''
    • Google Earth placemark
    • Location map: Geonames
  • Bojonegara

    • Banten
    • S 5° 58' 0'' E 106° 5' 0''
    • Google Earth placemark
    • Location map: Geonames
  • Karimunjawa
  • Central Java
  • S 5° 52' 0'' E 110° 26' 0''
  • Google Earth placemark
  • Location map: Geonames
  • West Kalimantan [precise location unclear]

Analysis

General

SBY Janji Tak Bangun PLTN di Daerah yang Ditolak [SBY promises not to build nuclear power plant in areas with public opposition], K. Yudha Wirakusuma, Okezone, 5 April 2009

[The General Chairman of the Executive Council of the Democratic Party, Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono, promised that that there wil be no nuclear power developments in regions with strong opposition. "Nuclear development is impossible in areas with opposition", he said in an interactive dialogue Democratic Party meeting of cadres and sympathisers in Magelang on Sunday. SBY naintaned that the government will not take an arrogant attitude to nuclear power development.]

Ketua Umum Dewan Pembina Partai Demokrat Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono berjanji tidak akan membangun Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Nuklir di daerah yang ditolak oleh warga. "Tidak mungkin dibangun di daerah yang ditolak masyarakat," ucapnya saat berdialog interaktif di depan ratusan kader dan simpatisan Partai Demokrat di Magelang, Minggu (5/4/2009). Lebih lanjut SBY berusaha meyakinkan bahwa pemerintahan tidak akan bersikap arogan untuk membangun sumber tenaga listrik tenaga nuklir.

"Tenang kita tidak akan bangun begitu saja. Bagi Indonesia kalau ada cara lain akan diusahakan sumber energi nonnuklir," terangnya. Menurutnya, energi adalah permasalahan yang pelik karena sumber daya alam seperti batu bara dan gas alam tidak dapat diperbaharui. "Kebutuhan listrik kita meningkat, jenis batu bara, minyak, dan gas lama-kelamaan akan habis dan tidak dapat diperbaharui," pungkasnya.

Lokasi 3 PLTN akan ditenderkan, [Nuclear power station to be put out to tender] Bisnis.com, July 17, 2008.

The government plans to carry out tenders with regional governments to determine the location of nuclear electric power  generation, aiming at three locations with a capacity as much as 10.000 MW. Before deciding the three definitive locations, the government will choose twelve alternative locations. Three areas that declare they would be prepared be a location of nuclear power development are to be given promises of a range of incentives.

Evita Herawati, Expert Advisor to the Minister for Minerals and Natural Resources, said that this is the government’s new strategy after the government failed in earlier attempts to gain public acceptance of nuclear power, as in the Muria region. It hopes that as a result of the change of strategy, community resistance will no longer occur.

“Regional governments that want nuclear power will be given incentives such as developments of markets, schools and other social facilities.” However, Evita said the government has not yet officially announced the plan, and it is ripening the plan through the work of an interdepartmental team.

Proyek PLTN Muria Masih Diupayakan, Kompas, 5 Juli 2008.

Rencana pembangunan Pusat Listrik Tenaga Nuklir di Semenanjung Muria, Kabupaten Jepara, Jawa Tengah masih terus diupayakan Badan Tenaga Atom Nasional. Pembangunan masih terkendala, adanya penolakan dari masyarakat, penolakan tidak hanya di lokal Jepara d an sekitarnya melainkan juga masyarakat di Provinsi Jawa Tengah. Hal itu disampaikan Deputi BATAN, Adi Wardojo, Sabtu (5/7) pada seminar nasional PLTN Solusi Terbaik Atasi Krisis Energi yang berlangsung di Politeknik Negeri Semarang.

Menurut Adi Wardojo, dipilihnya lokasi pembangunan PLTN di Semenangjung Muria, Jepara karena lokasi di bagian utara Jateng itu dinilai aman dari ancaman gempa maupun bencana alam. Studi menunjukkan bahwa lokasi Semenanjung Muria relatif aman, dibanding lokasi di kawasan selatan Jateng.

Pemerintah Akan Cari Lokasi Baru PLTN [Government will look for new NPP location], Technology Indonesia, 4 Juli 2008.

[Partial translation] This year a search for a new location for a nuclear power station will be a target. Three-four years will be needed before a deciding on the feasibility of such a location, according to the head of Batan, Hudi Hastowo, speaking on Tuesday (3 June) in a working group meeting with the Ministry of Research and Technology and non-departmental institutions with Commission VII of the People's Representative Council [DPR]. "A survey of NPP locations outside the Muria Peninsula will be carried out in this fiscal year (2008)".

Lokasi PLTN di Jepara Belum Final, Tempo Interaktif, 15 Juni 2007.

Menteri Riset dan Teknologi (Menristek), Kusmayanto Kadiman menyatakan lokasi pembangkit listrik tenaga nuklir (PLTN) di Jepara, Jawa Tengah belum final. Pemerintah hingga kini masih melakukan berbagai kajian kebumian dan ekonomi serta sosialisasi kepada semua elemen masyarakat. Lokasi lain yang dilirik Pemerintah adalah Madura, ujung timur Pulau Jawa dan Kalimantan. Tetapi, peluang PLTN diletakan di Kalimantan sangat kecil karena akan membutuhkan biaya operasional yang cukup besar.

Banten

Cilegon regional map
Source: Bojonegara Port Development (Phase 1), Directorate General of Sea Communication, Ministry of Communications, Project Summary, Jakarta, January 2005.

 

Nuklir Banten Segera Dibangu, M Gunawan Abdillah, Klipki21.com, 2009-06-21

Banten akan mempunyai Reaktor Nuklir dengan membangun Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Nuklir (PLTN) di pesisir Banten. Pro Kontra bermunculan, efek positif Banten akan menjadi tercepat dalam pembangunan industri kalau PLTN teralisir namun efek negatif mengenai limbah nuklir yang sulit diolah dan perlu biaya besar.

Pro kontra sendiri tentunya akan bermunculan, manfaat dan pengkajiannnya seharunya disosialisasikan ke masyarakat Banten dan Tangerang. Deputi Pengembangan dan Teknologi Energi Nuklir Ir. Adiwardojo menegaskan projek persiapan PLTN di pesisir Banten tetap dilakukan. Tahapannya memang butuh waktu panjang, namun tak berarti proyek tersebut tidak berjalan.

Nyatanya, sambung dia tindakan pemantauan potensi wilayah dan penandatangan MOU dengan pemerintah daerah sudah dilakukan. Itu berarti kemajuan proyek ini sudah cukup cepat. Ditegaskannya pemanfaatan teknologi nuklir di Banten bukanlah untuk kepentingan senjata. Tetapi pada pengoptimalan sector pertanian, panas bumi dan sumberdaya air.

“Kalau tidak salah sudah ada kesepakatan BATAN dengan Pemprov Banten pada 13 Maret 2008. Sekarang sudah lebih maju proses kerjasama itu,” tutur Ir. Adiwardojo usai menghadiri seminar Tantangan Pengelolaan Limbah Radioaktif di Indonesia Saat Ini dan Mendatang di Puspitek, Serpong, Tangerang Selatan, kemarin siang. Adiwardojo menambahkan pembanguan fisik PLTN itu memang butuh banyak persyaratan. Untuk memenuhi perlu standarisasi yang ketat. Itu telah ditetapkan oleh International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).

Prosedur tersebut, lanjut dia dapat didasari menjadi tiga point. Yakni aman dan selamat, tidak untuk persenjataan dan pengembangan energi alternatif. ”Tiga hal ini dijabarkan dalam banyak persyaratan. Itu harus dipenuhi dan lengkap,” terangnya. Beberapa kabar menyebutkan lokasi PLTN itu dibangun di dua lokasi, yaitu Tanjung Bontang dan Pulau Panjang.

”Ah..saya belum tahu lokasinya. Sekarang masih terus dilakuakn penilaian atau survey terhada lokasi yang layak,” kelit Adi. Mantan Menristek RI, As Hikam menegaskan pembangunan PLTN seharusnya bisa dipercepat. Keterlambatan dalam penyiapan dan pengembangan teknologi nuklir ini dapat merusak tatanan kehidupan bernegara. Karena sumber energi fosil dipastikan bakal habis dalam waktu cepat. Teknologi nuklir, menurut AS Hikam menjadi alternatif yang aman dan ramah lingkungan. Penolakan masyarakat itu dipicu dari ketidakpahaman terhadap pemanfaatan teknoligi nuklir ini.

Banten dan Jabar Dilobi Jadi Lokasi PLTN [Banten and West Java lobbied as nuclear power locations], Koran Indonesia, 6 August 2008.

Through the National Nuclear Energy Agency (Batan), the government is intensifying its discussions with two regional governments, Banten and West Java, concerning an alternative location for its planned nuclear power station. Banten Governor Atut Chosiyah Governor  that the nuclear power station development plan in the north of Banten Province  will be preceded by a Batan study.  The Banten Provincial Government is open to the possibilities of investment or the development of a nuclear power plant.

The executive officer of the Serang Regency Development Planning Agency, Memed Muhammad explained that his office will be waiting for results of the Batan study of the possibility of the PLTN development. Basically the nuclear power plant development plan was very good, he said. However, deep and comprehensive study was necessary. The Bojonegara region has indeed been designated a heavy industrial region, including chemical industry and shipyards. If indeed the nuclear power plant development was enabled in the Bojonegara area, I do not think there will be a problem, he said.

Cilegon Tolak PLTN [Cilegon Opposes nuclear power station], Sinar Harapan, 05 Agustus  2008.

[Partial translation] The City Secretary [Sekretaris Kota (Sekot)] of Cilegon, Edi Ariadi, would be opposed to the development of a nuclear power station in in Cilegon. Apart from the fact that there are already a number of power stations in this “steel city”, Edi is also concerned about the emergence of unrest in the community. “We will not agree to the location of a nuclear power plant in Cilegon. If it is to be in Banten, then I think it hould be in the kapubaten of Lebak, because there are already many generating facilities in Cilegon.”

 

On the other hand, the Governor of Banten, Atut Chosiyah, also asked the central government to not build the nuclear power station in either the Bojonegara area or Pulau Panjang Island in Kabupaten Serang. “The reason for this is that Bojonegara has been allocated as a Special Economic Region (KEK), and Pulau Panjang is planned for an oil refinery,” he said.

 

City Secretary Edi Ariadi explained that Cilegon already has three electricity generators: PLTU Suralaya, PLTGU Cilegon in Bojonegara, and the electricity generator belonging to PT Krakatau Steel.

PLTN Akan Dibangun di Pantura Banten [Nuclear Power Plant to be Built in the Northern Coastal Region of Banten], Kompas, 5 August 2008.

[Partial translation] The government is planning to build a nuclear power plant in the northern coastal region of Banten Province. Currently, the government is undertaking studies on three locations which will be chosen for the building of the plant.  “Batan (the National Nuclear Power Body) has already presented the plan to build the plant to the Baten’s provincial government and we welcome the plan” explained Banten Governor Ratu Atut Chosiyah.

The governor said currently Batan is still doing a location STUDY. “Now a study on the location is being undertaken first, but the provincial government of Banten also has requested that the building plan be socialised to the public first. It is hoped that this way there will be no misunderstanding” he said.

Minister of Research and Technology: Nuclear Power Plant to be Built on the Banten Coast, Kompas, 4 Augustus 2008.

[Partial translation] The national minister of research and technology, Kusmayanto Kadiman, said the government is planning to build a nuclear power plant in the northern coastal region of Banten province. Kadiman said the plant which will be built between 2015-2020, will have a capacity of 1000 megawatts and an investment value of around US$2-3 million. He said the reason for choosing the northern coast as the location for the plant is because the region is valuable for its abundant water resources needed for the nuclear power plant operation.

Bojonegara

Multi-Actor Information System for integrated coastal zone management, Meinke J. Schouten, Johannes S. Timmermans, Giampiero E.G. Beroggi, Wim J.A.M. Douven, Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 21 (2001), 271-289.

The case study concerned the Bojonegara subdistrict or Kecamatan, situated on the west side of the Banten Bay. This area is the most dynamic part of the bay. Land use is changing fast due to the changing economic opportunities andemployment conditions along the economic development corridor Jakarta – Merak. The area has national importance due to its strategic position. Although Indonesia was facing a severe economic crisis in 1999, the time when the case study was conducted,

it is foreseen that the Bojonegara area will be subjected to major changes within several years. Typical current planning and management aspects in Kecamatan Bojonegara are the construction of a new industrial zone, including a large harbor and a power station on Banten Bay, necessitating largescale land reclamation.

These plans imply several types of pressure for the former rural area. The area will be changed into an industrial zone, and there will be an infrastructural development to allow for goods transport from the harbor to the hinterland. Jetties have already been built and industries have settled in the area. Furthermore, land reclamation is taking place so that more industrial complexes can be built with access to the bay. Sand and stones are mined from mountains and from the bay itself to carry out the land reclamation. These developments have caused intense pressure on the abiotic condition of the bay area as well as the condition of the marine ecosystems in the bay environment.

West Kalimantan

Uranium Kalan Sudah Dikuras, Pontianak Post, 4 Mei 2009

 Anggota Komisi VII DPR Alvin Lie mengatakan, sumber uranium di Kalan, Kecamatan Ella Hilir, Kabupaten Melawi memang ada. Namun, kandungan bahan nuklir tersebut sudah pernah ditambang di era sebelum reformasi sehingga cadangannya hanya tersisa sedikit. Karena itu, jika digunakan untuk pembangkit listrik, menurutnya tidak akan efisien. “Hanya bisa dipakai untuk beberapa tahun saja,” ungkapnya belum lama ini di Pontianak. Menurut Alvin, secara pribadi dia pernah mengunjungi lokasi tempat penambangan uranium tersebut menggunakan helikopter beberapa tahun lalu. “Saya sudah lihat sendiri. Letaknya di dalam hutan, di antara lembah dan bukit. Sulit dicapai,” ujar dia. Mengingat kondisi yang demikian, dia justru lebih merekomendasikan pemanfaatan sumber energi lain misalnya energi panas bumi.

Sebagaimana diberitakan sebelumnya, pihak pemprov telah menyatakan bahwa sumber nuklir di Kalan-Melawi layak untuk dibangun PLTN karena potensinya besar. Ini berdasarkan rekomendasi dari Batan (Badan Tenaga Nuklir Nasional). Apalagi, dari aspek geologi juga sangat mendukung karena Kalbar bukan termasuk deretan gunung api (sirkum pasifik dan sirkum mediterania) serta tidak berada pada jalur atau lempeng patahan aktif gempa tektonik.

Di sisi lain, Kalbar juga memiliki wilayah yang luas serta penduduk sedikit. Menurut sumber Pontianak Post, Batan menemukan bahan tambang uranium oksida 10.000 ton dengan tingkat ketelitian spekulatif sampai terukur di Sungai Kalan, Kecamatan Ella Hilir. Penemuan itu terjadi setelah pengeboran evaluasi kedalaman 24.800 meter. Tetapi, eksplorasi Batan bekerjasama dengan French Atomic Energy Commision (CEA), Prancis tersebut dilakukan tahun 1963–1978 (sudah lebih 30 tahun lalu). (rnl)

Batan Rekomendasikan 1.000 Megawatt PLTN, [Batan recommends 1,000 Mw nuclear power station],  Berita Bappeda Provinsi Kalimantan Barat [West Kalimantan Provincial Government, Development Planning Agency News], 21 Februari 2008.

The National Nuclear Energy Agency (Batan) recommended that West Kalimantan was appropriate for the building of a nuclear-powered electricity generator with a potential of 1.000 megawatt. “It would be good to build a nuclear power plant in West Kalimantan because the region possesses uranium deposits,” said the Head of the Development Planning Agency (Bappeda) for the province of West Kalimantan. He added that West Kalimantan was regarded as a stable area, without earthquake epicentres, and that  number of inhabitants was still minimal. “They recommended a fourth generation nuclear power plant. So it really could be developed”, he said.

Walaupun Batan telah melakukan studi pembangunan tetapi belum tentu akan terealisasi dalam kurun waktu lima tahun mendatang. Artinya, dari studi hingga pembangunan fisik itu harus jadi tetapi Pemprov Kalbar hanya mengusulkan saja untuk kelanjutan studinya.

Badan Tenaga Nuklir Nasional (Batan) mengklaim cadangan uranium di Desa Kalan, Kecamatan Ella Hilir, Kabupaten Melawi sebesar 24.112 ton U3O8, dari berbagai kategori baik spekulatif hingga terukur. Sejumlah investor asing dikabarkan bakal menanamkan modalnya untuk uranium Kalan. Jumlah cadangan itu belum termasuk di Kabupaten Landak dan Sanggau yang diperkirakan kurang lebih sama banyak.

Energi yang tersimpan dari uranium itu cukup besar, dan bila dikonversi dengan energi batubara secara fisika, diketahui bahwa 1 kilogram Uranium sebanding dengan 3 juta kilogram batubara berkalori sangat tinggi. Dengan demikian, 12.419 ton sama dengan 12.419.000 kilogram uranium.

Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Nuklir di Kalbar Ditolak [Nuclear power plant in West Kalimantan opposed], Kompas, 3 April 2008.

Students from the West Kalimantan Student Front demonstrated in front of the Regional legislative Assembly. They rejected the plan to develop nuclear-powered electricity generation in West Kalimantan because of the potential to cause natural disasters damage to the community. The co-ordinator of the action, Hendrikus Adam, said that the electricity crisis in West Kalimantan must not be made into a pretext to develop nuclear energy. In his view, West Kalimantan possesses other energy alternatives like hydroelectricity, wind, and solar power, that up to now have not been optimally developed.

Ditolak Rencana Bangun Listrik Tenaga Nuklir [Nuclear power development plan opposed], Pontianak Post, 5 April 2008.

The Chairman of the West Kalimantan Provincial legislative Assembly, Ir H Zulfadhli, said he was opposed to the government plan to develop nuclear-powered electricity generation in West Kalimantan. The reason was because of the negative impact on both people and the environment.

"Rencana pendirian PLTN untuk mengatasi krisis listrik di Kalbar dengan bekerjasama dengan provinsi lain di Kalimantan, sangat bagus. Tetapi untuk PLTN merupakan alternatif lain, apabila sumber energi lain tidak ada lagi di Kalbar. Jadi atas dasar itu, saya tidak setuju rencana pembangunan PLTN di Kalbar," kata Zulfadhli.

This nuclear power plan in West Kalimantan did not just emerge just now, said Zulfadhli. The plan has been around for some time. Moreover the same plan had been discussed with the Head of Bappeda Provinsi West Kalimantan, some time previously. Zulfadhli  considered it strange that the Governor of West Kalimantan was still  insisting he wanted to continue to develop a nuclear power plant.

Karimunjawa

Gus Dur Minta PLTN Muria dipindahkan ke Pulau Karimunjawa, Media Indonesia, 31 January 2008.

Former President Abdurrahman Wahid 'Gus Dur' said that the government plan for the construction of a nuclear power plant on the Muria Peninsula should be cancelled and the moved to the island of Karimunjawa, 20 km from Jepara. "I say that the the nuclear power development should be placed in isolated islands. For example on the island of Karimunjawa," said Gus Dur opening the International Seminar on Iran's Nuclear Program: What is for? What can Indonesia Learn?

See also:

Uranium mining

 Project coordinator: Richard Tanter
Additional research:
Arabella Imhoff

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